Photocatalytic degradation of azo reactive dyes with ultraviolet and sunlight irradiated zinc oxide

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Textile Technology, Takoradi Technical University, Ghana

2 Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Cape Coast

3 Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana.

10.22034/fcr.2020.118439.1015

Abstract

Dye effluents are among the most persistent sources of pollution of water bodies and aquatic life. Notable dyes with known carcinogenic effects at low concentrations include azo reactive dyes. The present investigation is focused on the photocatalytic degradation of representative commercial azo dyes using zinc oxide (ZnO). The findings of this research show that ZnO irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation is more effective at degrading C .I. Reactive Yellow 145, C .I. Reactive Blue 194 and C.I. Reactive Red 194 as compared to the sunlight irradiated ZnO. The crystallinity, surface morphology and band gap energy of the ZnO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy respectively. The ZnO has a hexagonal wurzite structure with a band gap of 3.17 eV. The degradation profile was found to decrease with increasing initial dye concentration. The degradation efficiency of the respective dyes under UV and sunlight irradiation was found to be 90% and 85% for CIRY145; 88% and 82% for CIRB194; 96% and 90% for CIRR194. Optimum degradation pH values of 6.9, 7.2 and 6.2 were also recorded for CIRY145, CIRB and CIRR194, respectively, and the general degradation profile was found to follow first order kinetics. Gas chromatographic studies of the degradation reaction intermediates also showed that the degradation profile is time-dependent and all potentially carcinogenic intermediates were degraded into smaller environmentally friendly products such as oxalic acid and acetic acid.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1]      De Moraes, S.G., R.S. Freire, and N. Duran, Degradation and toxicity reduction of textile effluent by combined photocatalytic and ozonation processes. Chemosphere, 2000. 40(4): p. 369-373.

[2]      Gözmen, B., et al., Oxidative degradations of reactive blue 4 dye by different advanced oxidation methods. Journal of Hazardous materials, 2009. 168(1): p. 129-136.

[3]      Dalvand, A., et al., Modeling of Reactive Blue 19 azo dye removal from colored textile wastewater using L-arginine-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles: Optimization, reusability, kinetic and equilibrium studies. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 2016. 404: p. 179-189.

[4]      Agarwal, R., D.W. Denning, and A. Chakrabarti, Estimation of the burden of chronic and allergic pulmonary aspergillosis in India. PLoS One, 2014. 9(12): p. e114745.

[5]      Khehra, M.S., et al., Biodegradation of azo dye CI Acid Red 88 by an anoxic–aerobic sequential bioreactor. Dyes and Pigments, 2006. 70(1): p. 1-7.

[6]      Carmen, Z. and S. Daniela. Textile organic dyes–characteristics, polluting effects and separation/elimination procedures from industrial effluents–a critical overview. in Organic pollutants ten years after the Stockholm convention-environmental and analytical update. 2012. InTech.

[7]      de Lima, R.O.A., et al., Mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of a textile azo dye processing plant effluent that impacts a drinking water source. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 2007. 626(1): p. 53-60.

[8]      Luk, M.K., Photocatalytic Degradation and Chlorination of Azo Dye in Saline Wastewater, 2016, UTAR.

[9]      uO, D.O., A. Osuntoki, and G. Gbenle, Decolourization of azo dyes by a strain of Micrococcus isolated from a refuse dump soil. Biotechnology, 2009. 8(4): p. 442-448.

[10]    Kannan, S., K. Dhandayuthapani, and M. Sultana, Original Research Article Decolorization and degradation of Azo dye-Remazol Black B by newly isolated Pseudomonas putida. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 2013. 2(4): p. 108-116.

[11]    Lam, S.-M., et al., Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 2012. 41(1-3): p. 131-169.

[12]    Jo, W.-K. and R.J. Tayade, Recent developments in photocatalytic dye degradation upon irradiation with energy-efficient light emitting diodes. Chinese Journal of Catalysis, 2014. 35(11): p. 1781-1792.

[13]    Zangeneh, H., et al., Photocatalytic oxidation of organic dyes and pollutants in wastewater using different modified titanium dioxides: a comparative review. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2015. 26: p. 1-36.

[14]    Oturan, M.A. and J.-J. Aaron, Advanced oxidation processes in water/wastewater treatment: principles and applications. A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 2014. 44(23): p. 2577-2641.

[15]    Daneshvar, N., D. Salari, and A. Khataee, Photocatalytic degradation of azo dye acid red 14 in water on ZnO as an alternative catalyst to TiO2. Journal of photochemistry and photobiology A: chemistry, 2004. 162(2-3): p. 317-322.

[16]    Hernández-Alonso, M.D., et al., Development of alternative photocatalysts to TiO2: challenges and opportunities. Energy & Environmental Science, 2009. 2(12): p. 1231-1257.

[17]    Subash, B., et al., An efficient nanostructured Ag2S–ZnO for degradation of Acid Black 1 dye under day light illumination. Separation and Purification Technology, 2012. 96: p. 204-213.

[18]    Park, H.J., et al., Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting. Acs Nano, 2011. 5(9): p. 7055-7060.

[19]    Jia, Z., et al., Photocatalytic degradation and absorption kinetics of cibacron brilliant yellow 3G-P by nanosized ZnO catalyst under simulated solar light. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2016. 60: p. 267-274.

[20]    Mirzaei, A., et al., Removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds from water by zinc oxide-based photocatalytic degradation: a review. Sustainable Cities and Society, 2016. 27: p. 407-418.

[21]    Chenari, H.M., H.F. Moafi, and O. Rezaee, A study on the microstructural parameters of Zn (1-x) LaxZrxO nanopowders by X-ray line broadening analysis. Materials Research, 2016. 19(3): p. 548-554.

[22]    Bindu, P. and S. Thomas, Estimation of lattice strain in ZnO nanoparticles: X-ray peak profile analysis. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics, 2014. 8(4): p. 123-134.

[23]    Yu, L., et al., Decolorization characteristics of a newly isolated salt-tolerant Bacillus sp. strain and its application for azo dye-containing wastewater in immobilized form. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 2015. 99(21): p. 9277-9287.

[24]    Kee, M.W., Enhanced Photodegradation of Dye Mixtures (Methyl Orange and Methyl Green) and Real Textile Wastewater by ZnO Micro/Nanoflowers, 2017, UTAR.

[25]    Polsongkram, D., et al., Effect of synthesis conditions on the growth of ZnO nanorods via hydrothermal method. Physica B: Condensed Matter, 2008. 403(19-20): p. 3713-3717.

[26]    Roselin, L.S., et al., Sunlight/ZnO-mediated photocatalytic degradation of reactive red 22 using thin film flat bed flow photoreactor. Solar Energy, 2002. 73(4): p. 281-285.

[27]    Wang, D., et al., Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under sunlight by MoS2 nanodots modification. Applied Surface Science, 2016. 377: p. 221-227.

[28]    Wu, J.-J., et al., Effects of dye adsorption on the electron transport properties in ZnO-nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells. Applied Physics Letters, 2007. 90(21): p. 213109.

[29]    Ahmed, S., et al., Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of phenols in wastewater: a review on current status and developments. Desalination, 2010. 261(1-2): p. 3-18.


Volume 2, Issue 1
Winter and Spring 2020
Pages 26-32
  • Receive Date: 11 December 2019
  • Revise Date: 14 February 2020
  • Accept Date: 24 February 2020